[Histonet] Modified GMS Protocols

Nipuna Weerasinghe nipuna.we at gmail.com
Sun Dec 31 06:56:23 CST 2017

Thanks for your reply Gudrun,

I agree with your statements. If KMnO4 used as a replacement for CrO3, it
should be used under much milder conditions (low temperature and less
incubation time) than H6IO5 as KMnO4 is a stronger oxidant.  However, my
question was due to the fact that KMnO4 was a commonly used oxidant and
often compared with both CrO3 and H6IO5. Lillie and McManus showed that all
three can be used to stain same carbohydrate targets (Modified PAS).[1][2]
Even some of the recent papers discuss about GMS based on KMnO4 oxidation
but I cannot see protocols, on-market kits or papers actually reporting
any.[3] If KMnO4 can work in PAS why it is not tried in GMS? So I thought
histologists work in the filed have some experience.

[1]Lillie, R. D. Histochemical Comparison of the Casella, Bauer, and
Periodic Acid Oxidation-Schiff Leucofuchsin Technics. *Stain. Technol.*
1951, *26*, 123–136.
[2]McManus, J. F. A. Periodate Oxidation Techniques. In General
Cytochemical Methods; Academy Press Inc., 1961; Vol. 2
[3]Speranza, V. D.; Fail, R. A Common Mistake When Staining for Fungi.
Histol. Tech. Bull. Histotechnol. 2004.

On Sat, Dec 30, 2017 at 1:44 AM, Gudrun Lang <gu.lang at gmx.at> wrote:

> Biological stains were mainly found by trial and error through the
> century. I think the main goals were to find a good result (for the
> purpose) within the available resources (cheap / expensive, easy/difficult
> to get) and with a practical application.
> Later also health-concerns played a role, that eliminated some protocols.
> I believe, that the "forefathers" had a hard time to find the best-working
> protocols. And after that, the histological community acts upon the
> sentence "never change a winning team" and sticks to the protocols. And we
> have to admit, that the chemical knowledge of the histologists and the
> histological knowledge of the chemists may be rather decreased than grown
> bigger. (a lack of universal scientists)
> For the diverse oxidants I think (without literature as evidence) it is
> also a practical matter. The oxidizising result depends on strength of acid
> and duration of incubation. If you use a very strong oxidant, the time has
> to be watched very carefully and there is the risk of overoxidation. If you
> use a weaker oxidant, you have a longer time-space for a sufficient result.
> (5 min in periodic acid may refer to 20 sek in potassiumpermanganat ?)
> Gudrun
> -----Ursprüngliche Nachricht-----
> Von: Nipuna Weerasinghe via Histonet [mailto:histonet at lists.
> utsouthwestern.edu]
> Gesendet: Donnerstag, 28. Dezember 2017 20:30
> An: histonet at lists.utsouthwestern.edu
> Betreff: [Histonet] Modified GMS Protocols
> I would like to know from subject matter expert why KMno4 never used as an
> alternative oxidant to CrO3 in Modified GMS. Oxidation of 1,2-glycol
> linkages in carbohydrates to aldehyde groups can be done by KMNO4 and used
> to do the same in Castella’s potassium permanganate-Schiff reaction, and
> Gordon and Sweets' reticulum. Moreover, KMNO4 is a strong oxidant that can
> oxidized aldehyde to carboxylic, so this leads to closer mimicking of
> function of CrO3.
> Also why people only tried periodic and not any other oxidant to replace
> CrO3. I could not find any primary literates concnering this matter. Only
> handful of attempts with periodic is there.
> Thanks for your answers in advanced
> Lip.
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